1 despite the fact that; "even though she knew the answer, she did not respond" [syn: although, tho']
2 (postpositive) however; "it might be unpleasant, though"
- Rhymes: -əʊ
- Dholuo: kata kamano
- Dutch: echter
- Finnish: kuitenkin
- French: néanmoins
- Greek: εν τούτοις (én tútis), παρά ταύτα (pará táfta), ωστόσο (ostóso)
- Indonesian: bagaimanapun juga
- Interlingua: benque, malgrado, non obstante
- Italian: comunque, nonostante, in ogni caso, ad ogni modo
- Portuguese: no entanto, não obstante
- Russian: тем не менее, однако, всё-таки
- Spanish: no obstante
- Swahili: ijapokuwa, hata hivyo
- Volapük: do
- Danish: dog
- Dutch: hoewel
- Finnish: vaikka, (if there's negation after though) vaikkakaan
- French: malgré, bien que, cependant
- German: obwohl
- Greek: έστω και αν (ésto ké án), αν και (án ké), μολονότι (mólonóti), καίτοι (kéti)
- Icelandic: þó, þótt
- Indonesian: walau, meski
- Italian: anche se
- Polish: choć, chociaż
- Portuguese: apesar de
- Romanian: desi, de parca
- Russian: хотя, хоть и, несмотря на то, что
- Slovak: hoci
- Spanish: sin embargo, a pesar de
In logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions. It occurs when the propositions, taken together, yield two conclusions which form the logical inversions of each other. Illustrating a general tendency in applied logic, Aristotle’s law of noncontradiction states that “One cannot say of something that it is and that it is not in the same respect and at the same time.”
By extension, outside of formal logic, one can speak of contradictions between actions when one presumes that their motives contradict each other.
Contradiction in formal logicIn formal logic, particularly in propositional and first-order logic, a proposition \varphi is a contradiction if and only if \varphi\vdash\bot. Since for contradictory \varphi it is true that \vdash\varphi\rightarrow\psi for all \psi (because \varphi\rightarrow\bot\rightarrow\psi), one may prove any proposition from a set of axioms which contains contradictions.
Contradictions and philosophyAdherents of the epistemological theory of coherentism typically claim that as a necessary condition of the justification of a belief, that belief must form a part of a logically non-contradictory (consistent) system of beliefs. Some dialetheists, including Graham Priest, have argued that coherence may not require consistency.
Pragmatic contradictionsA pragmatic contradiction occur when the very statement of the argument contradicts the claims it purports. An inconsistency arises, in this case, because the act of utterance, rather than the content of what is said, undermines its conclusion. For examples, Heraclitus’s proposition that knowledge is impossible; or, arguably, Nietzsche’s statement that one should not obey others, or Moore's paradox. These are self-refuting statements and performative contradictions.
Contradiction outside formal logicColloquial usage can label actions or statements (or both) as contradicting each other when due (or perceived as due) to presuppositions which are contradictory in the logical sense.
In dialectical materialism, contradiction, as derived by Karl Marx from Hegelianism, usually refers to an opposition of social forces. Most prominently (according to Marx), capitalism entails a social system that has contradictions because the social classes have conflicting collective goals. These contradictions stem from the social structure of society and inherently lead to class conflict, economic crisis, and eventually revolution, the existing order’s overthrow and the formerly oppressed classes’ ascension to political power.
Mao Zedong's philosophical essay furthered Marx and Lenin's thesis and suggested that all existence is the result of contradiction.
though in Persian: تناقض
though in German: Kontradiktion
though in French: Contradiction
though in Korean: 모순
though in Icelandic: Mótsögn
though in Lithuanian: Prieštaravimas
though in Macedonian: Контрадикција
though in Dutch: Contradictie
though in Japanese: 矛盾
though in Norwegian: Selvmotsigelse
though in Polish: Sprzeczność
though in Portuguese: Contradição
though in Russian: Противоречие
though in Swedish: Motsägelse
though in Chinese: 矛盾